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Copyright YEHKRI.COM A.C.C. Publishing Services
YEHKRI Edition ©
Copyright is a property right granting the creator of a work a limited number of exclusive rights with respect to their work. In many legal systems, copyright is known as "author's right" (if translated literally, e.g. from French, German, and Spanish), and this emphasises the perception of copyright as a human right of the creator. Whilst copyright protection depends on national legislation, some core principles can be found in many jurisdictions around the world, as they stem from international treaties in the area of copyright.
Historically, the first right protected by copyright is literally just that: the right to copy and conversely, the right of the author to authorise - or prevent - others from copying. Other restricted acts can include the right to distribute, adapt, broadcast, cablecast and, in many jurisdictions, the right to make available to the public. All these rights can be authorised by the copyright owner, e.g. by way of agreement, often in the form of a license.
Copyright is usually granted to the author of a work in recognition for his original creative efforts; in most countries a work attracts copyright in the moment of its fixation, independent of any registration or other formality. This means that a literary or artistic work is subject to copyright as soon as it is written down, drawn, painted or photographed. Rough handwritten notes and pencil sketches are just as much protected as a finished book or a painting in a gallery. It is always the manifestation of a creative effort that is protected by copyright, and never the idea itself.
Unlike other property rights, copyright not only entails economic rights but often also so-called moral rights. Moral rights include the right to be identified as the author, or the right to object to derogatory treatment of one's work. These usually remain with the creator notwithstanding any agreement for the commercial exploitation of the copyrighted work.
The duration of the economic aspects of copyright is limited. In the case of literary works, international treaties prescribe a minimum term of 50 years after the death of the author. Many national jurisdictions and international treaties do however provide for a longer term of protection, e.g. 70 years in the European Union.
During this period, the copyright owner alone is entitled to reproduce, authorise or prevent the reproduction of, the copyrighted work - subject to limited exceptions: after all, copyright is a proprietary right.
PUBLISHERS & COPYRIGHT
With respect to rights, publishers have a dual role. As copyright users or licensees, they are entitled through agreements with authors and other publishers to use copyright protected works; as copyright owners or licensors, they grant a right to other publishers or users to copy, translate, adapt or otherwise use copyright protected works.
As users of copyrighted works, they have an interest in ensuring that copyright protection retains certain limitations, and that the limited duration of copyright ensures that creative works can enter the public domain. This way, publishers can just like other creators build their creative efforts on existing ones.
As owners of copyright, publishers have an interest in enforcing their property and commercial rights, and to prevent any activity putting at risk their commercial calculations. For this reason, they fight any unauthorised copying ("piracy"). From a publisher perspective it makes no difference whether a book is stolen or a work is copied unlawfully. This is why publishers engage in anti-piracy activities.
INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT TREATIES
Copyright is not only exploited at national level. Books and other copyrighted works are translated into many languages, or distributed in a number of countries. If copyright regimes differ too much from one country to another, creators lose out: For this reason, the drafting of international copyright treaties has always been a focal area of international conventions and organisations. Such treaties recognise that each country will have its own set of copyright laws. They do, however, lay down certain minimum standards as a basis for national laws, and secure protection under these laws for works of foreign creators, or works created abroad.
The main copyright treaties of relevance for book and journal publishers today are:
1. Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, administered by the World Intellectual Property Organisation WIPO, and counting more than 155 contracting parties;
2. TRIPS Agreement (Agreement on Trade-Related aspects of Intellectual Property Rights), administered by WTO, counting more than 140 members;
3. WIPO Copyright Treaty, administered by WIPO and counting approx. 60 contracting parties;
4. Universal Copyright Convention, administered by UNESCO and counting more than 60 contracting parties.
Further information you can find on IPA.
The YEHKRI Edition ISBN (International Standard Book Number)
The International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency.
An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation (except reprintings) of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, and 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country.
The initial ISBN configuration of recognition[clarification needed] was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering (SBN) created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108 (the SBN code can be converted to a ten digit ISBN by prefixing it with a zero).
Privately published books sometimes appear without an ISBN. The International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), identifies periodical publications such as magazines; and the International Standard Music Number (ISMN) covers for musical scores.
Further information you can find on Wikipedia.